Geneva / AFP
Syriaâ€™s warring sides prepared on Sunday for a new round of peace talks after locking horns over the fate of President Bashar Al Assad, with the regime insisting his ouster was a â€œred lineâ€ while the opposition vowed to see him goâ€”dead or alive.
The UN-brokered indirect negotiations are due to begin in Geneva on Monday, the latest international push to find a solution to Syriaâ€™s five-year civil war, which has killed more than 270,000 people and forced millions from their homes.
Government negotiators are expected in Geneva on Sunday, where delegates from the main opposition group, the High Negotiations Committee (HNC) are already preparing.
Analysts say much has changed since the last round collapsed last month as fighting raged across the country, but that the huge government-opposition divide will complicate a settlement.
A fragile February 27 truce brokered by the United States and Russia has largely held despite each side accusing the other of violations, a development US Secretary of State John Kerry said was â€œvery significantâ€.
But key obstacles remain, including the fate of Assad, parliamentary presidential elections and the shape of any new government.
â€œWe will not talk with anyone who wants to discuss the presidency… Bashar Al Assad is a red line,â€ Syrian Foreign Minister Walid Muallem told
a Damascus news conference on
â€œIf they continue with this approach, thereâ€™s no reason for them to come to Geneva.â€
The HNC has repeatedly called for Assadâ€™s departure as a prerequisite for any deal.
â€œWe believe that the transitional period should start with the fall, or death, of Bashar Al Assad,â€ chief opposition negotiator Mohammad Alloush told AFP in a joint interview in Geneva.
â€œIt cannot start with the presence of the regime, or the head of this regime still in power.â€
UN peace envoy Staffan de Mistura has said the Geneva meetings, opening on the eve of the fifth anniversary of the start of the conflict in March 2011, would not last more than 10 days.
â€˜Assad stronger than everâ€™
The negotiations are set to cover the formation of a new government, a fresh constitution and UN-monitored presidential and parliamentary elections within 18 months.
Assadâ€™s fate has long been a major stumbling block, with key Damascus ally Russia rejecting any suggestion he should go, while the United States wants him to step down.
â€œAssad is stronger than ever and is going nowhere,â€ said Joshua Landis, director of the Center for Middle East Studies at the University of Oklahoma, describing the agenda for the talks as â€œnot realisticâ€.
Muallem said the UN envoy had no right to â€œdiscuss presidential elections,â€ saying the talks aimed to form a unity government to appoint a committee to either write a new constitution or amend the existing one.
â€œThen we will have a referendum for the Syrian people to decide on it,â€ he said.
The HNC has called for the creation of a transitional body with full executive powers, and Alloush said Muallemâ€™s comments â€œshow that the regime is not serious about the political processâ€.
There have also been questions about how any deal would be felt on Syriaâ€™s battlefields, where myriad groups have been competing for territory.
Russiaâ€”which launched its own air strikes in support of the Assad regime in Septemberâ€”had called on de Mistura to include Syrian Kurds in peace talks.
The envoy told Swiss newspaper Le Temps that while they would not take part, they should be given a chance to express their views.
Fighting has eased across Syria since the landmark ceasefire between the regime and rebelsâ€”but not extremist groups such as ISâ€”took effect.
Kerry, who was in Paris on Sunday for talks with European partners on the conflict, said the truce had reduced violence by 80-90 percent, which he described as â€œvery, very significantâ€.
â€œWe believe that the start of talks this next week in Geneva presents a critical moment for bringing the political solution to the table that weâ€™ve all been waiting for,â€ he said after meeting top officials in Saudi Arabia on Saturday.
Both sides have accused the other of breaking the truce, and Alloush said there have been 350 violations, which showed the regime was â€œnot seriousâ€ about the ceasefire.
In the latest violence, regime air raids killed seven civilians in rebel-held areas of the main northern city of Aleppo on Friday, the Syrian Observatory for Human Rights said.
The Britain-based monitor said an rebel group claimed to have shot down a regime warplane Saturday in central Hama province, but a pro-government Facebook page blamed â€œtechnical