â€œWe are always looking at acquisitions,â€ Apple Inc. Chief Executive Officer Tim Cook told analysts last month. â€œThereâ€™s not a size that we would not do.â€ Itâ€™s a message heâ€™s increasingly stressed over the past year as investors question how the worldâ€™s most valuable technology company plans to use its $246 billion cash pile to meet ambitious sales targets and expand into new markets, such as transportation.
But Apple has struggled for years to pull off bigger deals because of a series of quirks: an aversion to risk, reluctance to work with external advisers like investment banks and inexperience in closing and integrating large takeovers, said people who have worked on acquisitions with the company. They asked not to be identified speaking about private merger and acquisition deliberations. â€œThe first step in M&A is having some conviction about what it is you want to do,â€ said Eric Risley, managing partner at Architect Partners LLC who has negotiated deals with Apple. â€œApple probably more than most feels that theyâ€™re very capable of building thingsâ€ rather than buying them, he added. An Apple spokesman declined to comment.
Appleâ€™s biggest deal in its 41-year history was the $3 billion purchase Beats Electronics in 2014, followed by the $400 million acquisition of NeXT Computer in 1996. In Facebook Inc.â€™s 13 years, it has made three acquisitions of at least $1 billion, including its $22 billion WhatsApp purchase. Google, founded in 1998, has done four such deals, while Microsoft Corp. has completed at least 10, according to data compiled by Bloomberg. Instead of closing big deals, Cook has so far focused on growing Appleâ€™s services businesses, including Apple Music, the App Store and iCloud. Thatâ€™s beginning to work, with the company recently forecasting that annual revenue from those operations will top $50 billion by 2021.
But even here, some analysts and investors argue for a big acquisition, especially in online video streaming. Apple has started distributing videos through the Music service, and pooling other providersâ€™ video in its mobile TV app, but it has no service akin to Netflix or Amazon.com Inc.â€™s Prime Video.
On Friday, Sanford C. Bernstein analyst Toni Sacconaghi said Apple needs at least one big acquisition in online video. To reach its $50 billion target, the company must find an extra $13 billion in services revenue over the next four years â€” beyond what it can generate itself. Netflix Inc. ended 2016 with sales of less than $9 billion, so even buying that business may not be enough, the analyst said.
Other potential blockbuster Apple acquisition targets include Walt Disney Co. and electric carmaker Tesla Inc., Baird analyst William Power wrote in a recent note to clients. â€œTheyâ€™re going to have to pursue something bigger than a Beats-like acquisition,â€ said Erick Maronak, chief investment officer at Victory Capital Management, which holds Apple stock among its $55 billion under management.
The presidency of Donald Trump may spark tax reforms that free up more Apple cash to spend on takeovers. But so far, the company has tip-toed around the edges of some of the biggest transactions re-shaping the technology industry. When AT&T Inc. agreed to purchase Time Warner Inc. for $85 billion in October, the telecom company was concerned Apple might make a competing bid, people familiar with AT&Tâ€™s thinking said at the time. Apple had held tentative talks about a year earlier, but when the AT&T deal emerged, a person familiar with the technology giantâ€™s thinking said it wouldnâ€™t be able to pull together a competing proposal quickly enough.
Last year, the company considered buying luxury carmaker McLaren Technology Group Ltd., people familiar with the discussions told Bloomberg at the time. Apple also had takeover talks with chip designer Imagination Technologies Group Plc, but said last year it wouldnâ€™t make an offer.
Appleâ€™s deals team is composed of about a dozen people under former Goldman Sachs banker Adrian Perica, and most acquisitions take place at the behest of the companyâ€™s engineers. Product managers usually meet every month with Pericaâ€™s team members to identify targets with attractive technology or talented engineers, according to a person familiar with the process.
Microsoftâ€™s deals team is not significantly bigger, and it still hired investment bank Morgan Stanley for its $26 billion acquisition of LinkedIn last year, beating rival bidders including Salesforce.com Inc. and Facebook.
At Google, the corporate development team is led by Don Harrison and sometimes works on potential acquisitions with strategy experts working under Chief Business Officer Philipp Schindler, not just technical staff. Other deals are carried out at the behest of founders Larry Page and Sergey Brin.
Apple often refuses to work with investment bankers appointed by the seller, preferring to deal directly with company management, according to people who have been involved in such negotiations. Apple also dictates terms and tells targets to take it or leave it, betting that the promise of product development support later and the chance of appearing in future iPhones are alluring enough, the people said.
Appleâ€™s current M&A strategy works well for acquiring startups developing new technology that can be added to existing Apple products. It bought 15 to 20 firms per year over last four years. But buying larger companies presents a different challenge, particularly if there are rival bids. Bankers often diffuse tension between bidders and targets, but Appleâ€™s approach can make that process difficult. â€œThereâ€™s a swagger â€” you may call it arrogance â€” about the culture there,â€ said Risley of Architect Partners. â€œTheyâ€™re used to being able to muscle their way in and get attractive economics.â€